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The Early Barnards of Massachusetts and Connecticut

Francis Barnard's emigration from England to Massachusetts (ca. 1634), life in Massachusetts and Connecticut, and relation to other early Barnard lines of early North America.

The Early Barnards of Massachusetts and Connecticut

Francis Barnard, Bartholomew Barnard, and John Barnard all lived in close proximity to each other. Another John Barnard, of Watertown, Massachusetts, sailed from England on the same day. Little is known about their relationships, if any, or their antecedents. However, the Barnard Surname DNA Project may shed light on the mystery.

This article:

  • Introduces these Barnards,
  • Explains what we know about their emigration to Massachusetts and Connecticut,
  • Explains the Barnard Surname DNA Project,
  • Introduces an interesting DNA result shedding light on these early Barnard relationships, and
  • Names the recorded facts definitely placing these Barnards in Hartford, Connecticut, prior to 1650.

Francis Barnard (ca. 1616-1698)

Francis Barnard:

  • Emigrated from England (probably in 1634)
  • Arrived in Massachusetts (as did several other unrelated Barnards)

Francis Barnard was among the early settlers of:

  • Hartford, Connecticut (1636)
  • Hadley, Massachusetts (1659)
  • Deerfield, Massachusetts (1673)

Prior to the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), Francis Barnard's descendants resided principally in Massachusetts and Connecticut. Thereafter:

  • Some removed to Vermont
  • Many migrated westward, settling mainly in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin (or the territories that subsequently formed these states)
  • Many Loyalists ("Tories") removed to Nova Scotia and Lower Canada (Ontario) during and immediately following the Revolutionary War

Today descendants of Francis live throughout the United States and Canada

Barnard Surname DNA Project

At the present time, little is known about the antecedents of Francis and his relationship to the other early Barnards. However, modern DNA research is beginning to provide some answers.

See www.family.dranrab.com for the latest Barnard Surname DNA Project discoveries. Even with a small number of participants, several relationships have been proved and disproved. Of the initial group of 21, 11 have verified new links or suspected links, and a further relationship has been confirmed with two members of the Barnette Surname DNA Project.

If you or your relatives have the Barnard surname (or any variation thereof), please do consider participating in the Barnard Surname DNA Project. A few cells from the inside of your cheek may solve mysteries from hundreds of years ago!

The primary value of any surname DNA Project is to confirm the "paper" genealogies. For example, genealogical research shows that Walther M. Barnard and Edward W. Barnard have the common ancestor Francis Barnard (1719-1789). Both Walther and Edward participate in the Barnard Surname DNA Project, and their DNA profiles confirm the relationship.

Bartholomew Barnard

Bartholomew Barnard (died ca. 1698) was an early settler of Hartford. He founded a prominent line of Barnards in central Connecticut.

Bartholomew has been linked as a brother to Francis, and to their supposed common father and grandfather. However, there is no concrete evidence to support these relationships, notwithstanding the proliferation of pedigrees posted on the Internet.

Both Francis and Bartholomew settled in fledgling Hartford, Connecticut. Whether they were closely related to each other remains an open question. Ultimately, we hope the Barnard Surname DNA Project will establish the existence or non-existence of that relationship.

John Barnard

Of Francis' kinsmanship to a John Barnard we have more substance. Henry R. Stiles, 1892, refers to John as the "brother" of Francis (although he could have been an uncle, cousin, or other; if Francis were his real brother, it is reasonable that John would have referred to Francis as his brother, not his kinsman, in naming him executor of his will). More importantly, Stiles specifically states that both settled in Hartford until about 1659 and then moved to Hadley, Massachusetts:

BARNARD. The Windsor Barnards are supposed to have descended from Francis, who, with his brother John both first settled at Hartford; removed to Hadley, Mass., 1659.1

Stiles refers to the John Barnard biography in The Memorial History of Hartford County, 1886:

John Barnard emigrated from England to New England:

  • As a maltster by trade
  • Probably in the "Francis," from Ipswich, 1634, with his wife, Mary, aged 38
  • Was perhaps the freeman of March 4, 1635

John Barnard removed from Cambridge to Hartford, where:

  • In 1636, he was an original proprietor
  • Had 24 acres in the land division of 1639-1640, and "his home-kit was on the south side of the highway, now Elm St."
  • Was chosen deputy, 1642-3
  • Was townsman, 1644, 1649, 1653, 1657
  • Was exempted by the General Court from watching and warding, May, 1656.

He was one of the "withdrawers," and removed to Hadley, 1659. He was buried there May 23, 1664, leaving a widow, Mary, but no children. The widow died Feb. or March, 1664-5.

John Barnard mentions in his will

  • His kinsman, Francis Barnard, as executor
  • Morgan and Thomas Bedient, children of his sister, Mary, living in Old England
  • The child, of his kinsman, Henry Hayward, of Wethersfield.

His widow left much of her property to her brothers, Daniel and William Stacy, of Burnham, near Maldon, Co. Essex.2


John Barnard biography from page 229 of
The memorial history of Hartford County, Connecticut, 1633-1884; (1886), Volume I

Memorial History's essay "Settlement of the Town" (of Hartford) names John Barnard as one of the original twelve proprietors. He came from Newtown (afterwards named Cambridge) early in 1635:

On the 9th of June, 1634, ...six of Newtown went ...to discover Connecticut River, intending to remove their town thither. So that in 1634 there was a present intention of the Newtown people to migrate to the place afterward planted by them, now Hartford.

A few people from Newtown (afterward called Cambridge), reached Suckiaug early in 1635 ; and in November about sixty are said to have arrived. The very earliest of these immigrants formed the company thereafter known as " Adventurers ; " ...The Adventurers were about twelve in number, and their names, so far as known, were as follows:

John Barnard, Richard Goodman, Stephen Hart, Matthew Marvin, James Olmsted, William Pantry, Thomas Scott, Thomas Stanley, John Steele, John Talcott, Richard Webb, William Westwood.3

The Genealogical Dictionary of New England Settlers repeats Memorial History information on John, adding new details of whom he and his widow provided for in their wills:

JOHN BARNARD, Cambridge, Massachusetts, came, probably in the Francis from Ipswich, England, in 1634, aged 36, with wife Mary, aged 38, was perhaps the freeman of 4 March 1635. He removed in 1636, to Hartford, thence to Hadley 1659, or soon after, and died 1664, leaving no children.

He left good estate, made his kinsman Francis Barnard the Executor, giving much to Morgan and Thomas Bedient, children of his sister Mary, then living in Old England who came over to enjoy it.

His widow Mary died the next year and she gave much of her estate to Daniel and William Stacy, of Barnham, near Malden in Co. Essex, her brothers, and 10 pounds, to bring up Thomas, son of Francis Bedient to school. This legacy was well bestowed, for the former was poor, and the son worthy.4

Planters of Commonwealth; a Study of Emigrants also lists a John, age 36, and a Mary, age 38, as arriving in New England in 1634.5

Specifically, John Barnard's will, dated 21 May 1664 and proved 27 September 1664, left to "Francis Barnard" ₤2 and to "John Barnard his [Francis'] son" ₤3.6

In his wife Mary's will, dated 7 February 1664[/5] and proved 28 March 1665, Mary bequeathed, among items to others,

  • "the rest of my wearing linen" to "my nurse & the wife of Francis Barnard to be divided between them";
  • to "Francis Barnard" moveables and to "his wife" moveables;
  • to "his son Thomas ten pounds to be improved in bringing him up at school" and "my new Bible";
  • residue to "the children of my brother[s] Daniell & William Stace (living in old England at Burnam near Maldon in Essex) to be equally divided between them," according to certain conditions, but if the conditions are not met, then to "the aforesaid Thomas Barnard";
  • "what of my household goods is to be set to sale ... my nurse & the wife of Francis Barnard may have the said refusal thereof";
  • "my friends Richard Goodman & Francis Barnard to be my executors and overseers";
  • "my friends Goody Ward & Goody Barnard" to "help them in distributing the linen and woolen goods"7

After giving us the text of Mary's will, Anderson further states: "The Francis Barnard who is named in the will, and also later became an administrator of the estate, was presumably also a close kinsman of John Barnard."8

The closeness of John and Francis in their both settling in Hartford by the early 1640s and removing to Hadley, and in Francis serving as John's executor argues that Francis probably also accompanied John and Mary on their voyage to the New World. To date a record of Francis' immigration has not been found.

Text not available
Page 279 from
The Original Lists of Persons of Quality Emigrants, Religious Exiles, Political Rebels, Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years, Apprentices, Children Stolen, Maidens Pressed, and Others, who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700 By John Camden Hotten, Great Britain Public Record Office

According to Original lists... (page image shown above), "John Bernard," aged 36, and "Mary his wife," aged 38, sailed for New England on "the last of April 1634" on the Francis of Ipswich. With them were "Fayth Newell," aged 14, and "Henry Haward," aged 7 (page images below).9

Text not available
Page 277 from
The Original Lists of Persons of Quality Emigrants, Religious Exiles, Political Rebels, Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years, Apprentices, Children Stolen, Maidens Pressed, and Others, who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700 By John Camden Hotten, Great Britain Public Record Office

Text not available
Page 278 from
The Original Lists of Persons of Quality Emigrants, Religious Exiles, Political Rebels, Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years, Apprentices, Children Stolen, Maidens Pressed, and Others, who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700 By John Camden Hotten, Great Britain Public Record Office

Francis would have been 17 or 18 years of age (if born in 1616) and, as a young adult, may not have been considered as being part of John's family. Whether or not Francis accompanied John on the Francis from Ipswich in 1634, he must have arrived in MA and settled in Hartford by 1644 (per his marriage record). 

Hinman states that Francis Barnard was:10

  • Not known in the land division division at Hartford, in 1639
  • In 1644, he resided on the corner of Main and Charter streets, in Hartford
  • He was a viewer of chimneys and ladders at Hartford, in 1646

John Barnard of Watertown, Massachusetts

One reference does state that a "John arrived in Massachusetts in 1634 with family"11. This reference may be to another John Barnard, age 30 years, who is known to have arrived also in 1634 with his wife Phebe and sons John and Samuel in the Elizabeth from Ipswich. This John and Phebe are the progenitors of what has become to be known as the Watertown (Massachusetts) line of Barnards. 12

Text not available
Page 280 from
The Original Lists of Persons of Quality Emigrants, Religious Exiles, Political Rebels, Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years, Apprentices, Children Stolen, Maidens Pressed, and Others, who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700 By John Camden Hotten, Great Britain Public Record Office

Text not available
Page 282 from
The Original Lists of Persons of Quality Emigrants, Religious Exiles, Political Rebels, Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years, Apprentices, Children Stolen, Maidens Pressed, and Others, who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700 By John Camden Hotten, Great Britain Public Record Office

These two families of Barnards departed from Ipswich, bound for the New World, in separate ships, the Elizabeth and the Francis, on the very same day, 10 April 1634, and the question remains, Were they related or was it a coincidence?13.

DNA Project Answers

The Barnard Surname DNA Project (the Web site is www.family.dranrab.com) may ultimately establish the existence or non-existence of the relationship between Francis (and his kinsman John) and John Barnard, the progenitor of the Watertown line.

A very promising lead to an established relationship was realized on 30 September 2005 when Walther Barnard received his DNA results from DNA Heritage: all 43 markers, except 4, were identical with those of William "Bill" Asher Barnard, of Seattle, Washington, a descendant of John Barnard of Watertown, MA. Bill is six generations and some 260 years removed from John Davis Barnard, with two marker differences. If related, Bill and Walther would be at least 11 generations separated, so another two marker differences may very well be expected.

Hartford Records

From the preceding we are given the intelligence that Francis Barnard and John Barnard moved to Hartford in 1636, and that Bartholomew Barnard was also an early settler of Hartford.

Evidence for each being in Hartford in the late part of the first half of the 17th century is as follows:

  • For Francis Barnard, his recorded marriage to Hannah Meruell on 15 Aug. 164414
  • For Bartholomew Barnard, his recorded marriage to "Sara Burchard" on 24/25 Oct. 164715
  • For John Barnard, Hartford court records dating back to 7 May 1640, in which John apparently was serving as an executor of the estate of one Thomas Johnson.16 John also served Hartford court jury duty on 2 March 1642 and was fined 2 shillings for not appearing for Hartford court jury duty on 28 Dec. 1648.17

Sources

  1. Henry R. Stiles, The history and Genealogies of Ancient Windsor, Connecticut; Including East Windsor, South Windsor, Bloomfield, Windsor Locks, and Ellington, 1635-1891, 2 volumes (Hartford, Connecticut: Case, Lockwood & Brainard Co., 1892), II: 58.
  2. J. Hammond Trumbull, The memorial history of Hartford County, Connecticut, 1633-1884, 2 volumes (Boston: E. L. Osgood, 1886), i: 229; The two volumes are available online as http://www.archive.org/details/memorialhistoryo01trum and http://www.archive.org/details/memorialhistoryo02trum.
  3. Trumbull, Memorial History of Hartford County, i:221.
  4. James Savage, A Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England Showing Three Generations of Those Who Came Before May, 1692, Volumes I-IV (Boston: n.p., 1860-1862), I: 121.
  5. Roy Barnard, The New World Book of Barnards (Ohio: Halbert's Family Heritage, 1997), 51-52; Citing Banks, Charles Edward, Planters of Commonwealth; a Study of Emigrants. Baltimore; Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1961, p. 122.
  6. R. A. Anderson, et al., The Great Migration; Immigrants to New England 1634-1635 (N.p.: n.p., n.d.), 1, A-B: 159; Citing Hampshire County, Massachusetts, Court Records 1:35-37.
  7. Anderson, et al., The Great Migration; Immigrants to New England 1634-1635, 1, A-B: 159-160; Citing Hampshire County, Massachusetts, Court Records 1:48-50.
  8. Anderson, et al., The Great Migration; Immigrants to New England 1634-1635, 1, A-B: 161.
  9. Roy Barnard, The New World Book of Barnards (Ohio: Halbert's Family Heritage, 1997), 53; Citing Colket, Meredith B., Jr., Founders of Early American Families: Emigrants... Cleveland: General Court of Order..., 1975, p. 18.
  10. John Camden Hotten, Great Britain Public Record Office, The Original Lists of Persons of Quality: Emigrants, Religious Exiles, Political Rebels, Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years, Apprentices, Children Stolen, Maidens Pressed, and Others, who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700 (Empire State Book Co., 1874), 277-279.
  11. Royal Ralph Hinman, A Catalogue of the Names of the Early Puritan Settlers of the Colony of Connecticut: With the Time of Their Arrival in the Country and Colony, Their Standing in Society, Place of Residence, Condition in Life, where From, Business, &c., as Far as is Found on Record (Case, Tiffany, 1852), 133. Available on Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=KTkBAAAAYAAJ
  12. Hotten, Original Lists, 280-282.
  13. William A. Barnard Barnard Lines (Spring 1981): 8.
  14. Hartford, Connecticut, Hartford Vital Records, FFS: 26 and D: 21; Barbour Collection on microfilm; housed at Connecticut Historical Society; records that Francis Barnard married Hanna Merrell on 15 Aug. 1644; "Meruell" is pencilled in over "Merrell"
  15. Hartford, Connecticut, Hartford Vital Records, FFS: 27 and D: 23; Barbour Collection on microfilm; housed at Connecticut Historical Society.
  16. J.H. Trumbull, The Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut (Press of the Case, 1850), vol. 1, p. 49, 55. Available on Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=ST0OAAAAIAAJ.
  17. Trumbull, The Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut, vol. 1, p. 81 and 174.


ID  16 
Linked to  Bartholomew BARNARD
Francis BARNARD
John BARNARD
Sara BURCHARD
Hannah MERUELL
Mary STACY 
Albums  Francis Barnard Descendants 

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